New types of laboratory and diagnostic services
ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE (AMH)
Hormonal imbalance is one of the causes of failure to conceive. It is one of the main reasons for many couple to decide on IVF. To detect hormonal imbalance, a test for AMH is performed. Medical specialists consider AMH to be an efficient marker of the functional capacity of the ovaries.
Hormonal imbalance may result in pathology. Anti-Mullerian hormone is the organic product. The brain does not regulate the secretion of this hormone. Its secretion depends of functioning of the ovaries only. AMH concentration remains unchanged until the puberty. After that, the concentration varies within a certain range. The concentration is influenced by precipitating factors and age-related changes. The maximum concentration is found in women of 20-30 years old. The minimum level of AMH is observed during menopause.
The indications for the test are:
- suspected infertility of unknown origin;
- high-level of follicle-stimulating hormone;
- several IVF failures;
- suspected polycystic ovary syndrome;
- monitoring of efficacy of the androgen deprivation therapy;
- detection of ovarian granulose cell tumors;
- disorders of sexual development in teenagers.
Procalcitonin is the precursor of hormone calcitocin. It was found out that the concentration of procalcitonin in blood increases in case of bacterial infections. Thus, procalcitonin became a marker of bacterial infections.
By the end of the 80s, it was found out that the level of procalcitonin, as well as the level of calcitonin, increases in case of thyroid cancer and some forms of lung cancer. In 1992, Café research and other research showed that calcitonin and procalcitonin were permanently found in blood of the patients with burns. Moreover, the level of procalcitonin was high in patients with septicemia, while the level of calcitonin was normal.
The research of children, carried out in 1993, showed that high levels of procalcitonin were observed in case of bacterial infections (while calcitonin was normal). In patients with viral infections or inflammatory diseases the concentration of procalcitonin was permanently low. Moreover, an initially high level of procalcitonin decreased after antibiotic therapy.
Procalcitonin is an effective marker, which may be used in research of clinical and biological pathology. In comparison with other common markers, procalcitonin is more sensitive to and highly specific marker of severe bacterial infections. It may be used as a prognostic marker for progressive infectious processes. The test for procalcitonin is highly accurate within the range of low values (from 1 to 5 ng/ml). It is especially important for the detection of focal infections without signs of bacteriaemia.
Today, the test is widely used in clinical practice. It has may advantages and is the best diagnostic test for monitoring, if compared to such tests as CRL, IL-6, white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
BNP is secreted by cardiac muscle cells – cardiomyocytes – in response to excessive stretching of the cardiac muscle. It regulates water and salt metabolism and blood pressure. BNP is characterized by a high prognostic capability in diagnosis of heart failure, due to the fact that BNPs are secreted by the ventricles of the heart and show the load to the myocardium.
It was found out that the level of NT-proBNP increases in most of the patients with acute coronary syndrome. It is an important sign of the development of heart failure. The degree of increase of NT-proBNP concentration in blood helps to make a long-term prognosis for the disease.
A high concentration of NT-proBNP is a sign of left ventricular dysfunction or congestive heart failure. It is more effective test for an early detection of the above diseases than instrumental tests and EchoCG.
NT-proBNP marker is used worldwide for an early detection of heart failure. The European Society of Cardiology recommends to carry out the test to:
- detect the patients, who are highly likely to have heart failure, during screenings;
- early diagnose heart failure;
- assess the effectiveness of drug therapy in patients with heart failure;
- assess the prognosis of the progress of the diseases in patients with heart failure.
The estimated cost of the test is 7 BYN.